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Testicular, epididymal, scrotal, penis or foreskin abnormalities

ADULT

If any of the following are present or suspected, please refer the patient to the emergency department (via ambulance if necessary) or seek emergent medical advice if in a remote region.


  • Acute/severe renal or ureteric colic
  • Acute renal or ureteric colic with obstruction and/or infection
  • Acute urinary retention
  • Urinary tract and genital trauma
  • Urinary tract sepsis or severe infection
  • Severe urinary tract bleeding
  • Autonomic dysreflexia
  • Foreign bodies
  • Priapism
  • Acute scrotal pain/ torsion of the testes
  • Severe genital infection e.g. Fournier’s gangrene/epididymo-orchitis
  • Paraphimosis – unable to reduce
  • Priapism
  • Refer to Healthpathways or local guidelines

Medical management

  • Trial of steroid cream for phimosis
  • MSU
  • Urine PCR and/or swabs for chlamydia and gonorrhoea for suspected epididymo-orchitis
  • Urine cytology if indicated
  • USS scrotum/testes
  • If suspected or confirmed STI refer sexual health clinic

 For erectile dysfunction

  • Lifestyle changes
  • PDE5 inhibitors
  • Co morbidity management (e.g. diabetes, heart disease)
  • HRT
  • Psychology
  • External devices

Minimum Referral Criteria

  • Category 1
    (appointment within 30 calendar days)
    • Painless, solid, testicular mass
    • Scrotal pain or swelling suspicious of testicular cancer
    • Suspected penile cancer or tumour
    • Metastatic germ cell tumors require both Urology and Oncology input. For optimum care, should be seen within 2 weeks
  • Category 2
    (appointment within 90 calendar days)
    • Intermittent testicular pain suggestive of intermittent testicular torsion 
    • Painful swollen testis/epididymis provided testicular cancer has been excluded
    • Haematospermia 
    • Foreskin phimosis with voiding symptoms/threatened paraphimosis
    • Penile discharge or lesions or ballanitis (excluding genital warts)
  • Category 3
    (appointment within 365 calendar days)
    • Scrotal pain or swelling and any of the following:
      • hydrocele/varicocele
      • painful or large epididymal cyst
    • Foreskin phimosis, provided no obstructed voiding
    • Erectile dysfunction not responding to maximal medical management
    • Peyronie’s disease causing functional impairment or pain 
    • Chronic testicular pain
    • Other foreskin abnormalities (frenulum breve, scarring and tearing)

1. Reason for request Indicate on the referral

  • To establish a diagnosis
  • For treatment or intervention
  • For advice and management
  • For specialist to take over management
  • Reassurance for GP/second opinion
  • For a specified test/investigation the GP can't order, or the patient can't afford or access
  • Reassurance for the patient/family
  • For other reason (e.g. rapidly accelerating disease progression)
  • Clinical judgement indicates a referral for specialist review is necessary

2. Essential referral information Referral will be returned without this

  • MSU M/C/S results*
  • USS scrotum/testes results*

*Not necessary for penile cancer/tumour or phimosis conditions

3. Additional referral information Useful for processing the referral

  • Urine PCR and/or swabs results
  • Urine cytology results

4. Request

Patient's Demographic Details

  • Full name (including aliases)
  • Date of birth
  • Residential and postal address
  • Telephone contact number/s – home, mobile and alternative
  • Medicare number (where eligible)
  • Name of the parent or caregiver (if appropriate)
  • Preferred language and interpreter requirements
  • Identifies as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander

Referring Practitioner Details

  • Full name
  • Full address
  • Contact details – telephone, fax, email
  • Provider number
  • Date of referral
  • Signature

Relevant clinical information about the condition

  • Presenting symptoms (evolution and duration)
  • Physical findings
  • Details of previous treatment (including systemic and topical medications prescribed) including the course and outcome of the treatment
  • Body mass index (BMI)
  • Details of any associated medical conditions which may affect the condition or its treatment (e.g. diabetes), noting these must be stable and controlled prior to referral
  • Current medications and dosages
  • Drug allergies
  • Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs use

Reason for request

  • To establish a diagnosis
  • For treatment or intervention
  • For advice and management
  • For specialist to take over management
  • Reassurance for GP/second opinion
  • For a specified test/investigation the GP can't order, or the patient can't afford or access
  • Reassurance for the patient/family
  • For other reason (e.g. rapidly accelerating disease progression)
  • Clinical judgement indicates a referral for specialist review is necessary

Clinical modifiers

  • Impact on employment
  • Impact on education
  • Impact on home
  • Impact on activities of daily living
  • Impact on ability to care for others
  • Impact on personal frailty or safety
  • Identifies as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander

Other relevant information

  • Willingness to have surgery (where surgery is a likely intervention)
  • Choice to be treated as a public or private patient
  • Compensable status (e.g. DVA, Work Cover, Motor Vehicle Insurance, etc.)
  • Please note that where appropriate and where available, the referral may be streamed to an associated public allied health and/or nursing service.  Access to some specific services may include initial assessment and management by associated public allied health and/or nursing, which may either facilitate or negate the need to see the public medical specialist.
  • A change in patient circumstance (such as condition deteriorating, or becoming pregnant) may affect the urgency categorisation and should be communicated as soon as possible.
  • Please indicate in the referral if the patient is unable to access mandatory tests or investigations as they incur a cost or are unavailable locally.